Modal Auxiliaries

Rewrite the following sentences by using one of the modal auxiliaries below:

- shouldn't; - mustn't; - could; - needn't; should, might

Example: Maybe it will rain on Friday, but I don't know. - It might rain on Friday.

a) Don't touch that computer! You__________________!

b) Maria doesn't know for sure if she'll be here on Monday. It's just possible. - Maria_________________

to be used to OR used to

Do not confuse be/get used to + gerund (= be/get accustomed to) with used to + base form of verb (for habits in the past).


  • I'm used to taking the bus to work. (I'm accustomed to taking the bus. I've been travelling this way for years)
  • I'm getting used to taking the bus. (I'm becoming accustomed to taking the bus.)
  • I used to take the bus to work. (In the past I took the bus to work but I no longer take the bus - I have my own car now.)

a) Tina ______ (live) in England many years ago and so she _____ the rain.

b) Owen _____ to the freezing cold because he _____ (live) in Alaska.

Infinitives, to + infinitive and -ing

Put in the correct form. Choose the infinitive, to + infinitive or -ing.

1) You don´t look well. I don´t think you should ___________ the house. (leave)

2) Do you think it will ___________ this night? (rain)

3) Michelle isn´t ________________ this weekend. We could have dinner together. (work)

4) Shall I _________ the door? (close)

5) I´m hungry. I´m going _________ lunch. (have)

6) She spoke very quietly. I couldn´t _______ her. (hear)

7) Would you like _________ out tonight? (go)

8) It´s late. I have __________ home now. (go)

9) It´s a really good book. You must __________ it. (read)

10) I´m afraid I can´t ________ you. (help)

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are for example may, can, must, should, need. They express an ability, permission, wish etc. to do something. (I may, can, must swim.) Many modal verbs cannot be used in all of the English tenses. That's why we need to know the substitutes to these modal verbs.

Modal VerbSubstituteExample
must to have to I must swim. = I have to swim.
must not not to be allowed to I must not swim. = I am not allowed to swim.
can to be able to I can swim. = I am able to swim.
may to be allowed to I may swim. = I am allowed to swim.
need to have to I need to swim. = I have to swim.
need not not to have to I need not swim. = I don't have to swim.
shall / should/ ought to to be supposed to / to be expected to / to be to I shall / should / ought to swim. = I am supposed to swim. / I am expected to swim. / I am to swim.

Infinitives and the -ing form after verbs

 Match the sentences to make logical, grammatically correct sentences.

First part of the sentence Second part of the sentence
a) We will have to put off 1. taking me to the airport by car.
b) She would love 2. to help me.
c) I´m afraid the company can´t afford      3. calling a meeting until Susan´s return.
d) He suggested 4. to let you fly to the conference in Shanghai.         
e) Thank you for offering 5. to go home now.